Duodenal lymphogram as a complementary tool in the diagnosis of Celiac disease in adults

Authors:

Burgueño-Gómez B, Escudero-Hernández C, de Pedro R, Montalvillo E, Bernardo D, García Lagarto E, Garrote JA, Arranz E, Fernández-Salazar L

Year of publication:

2020

Volume:

112

Issue:

6

ISSN:

1130-0108

Journal (long):

Revista Espanola De Enfermedades Digestivas

Journal (short):

Rev. Esp. Enferm. Dig.

Impact factor:

1858

Abstract:

Introduction:
Celiac disease (CD) patients have a specific pattern of lymphocytic infiltrate in the duodenal mucosa. Flow cytometry is a complementary tool for the diagnosis of CD, which allows the quantification and characterization of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) by what is commonly called a lymphogram. Here we describe our experience with this technique in the diagnosis of CD in adult patients.

Methods:
Lymphograms from 157 patients performed in our center between 2009 and 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Fourteen patients had a previous diagnosis of CD and followed a gluten-free diet (GFD), 21 had a new diagnosis of CD and the remaining were considered as non-celiac. The association of the lymphogram results (total IELs, CD3- lymphocytes and TcRγδ lymphocytes) with the CD diagnosis, compliance with the GFD, time since diagnosis and IgA anti-TG2 titer were determined.

Results:
The area under the ROC curve of TcRγδ lymphocytes for CD patients varied between 0.86 and 0.86. The percentage of TcRγδ lymphocytes in GFD-treated patients was lower; 12 (8.5) vs 20.5 (8.7), p = 0.0153. However, it remained high compared to non-CD; 12 (8.5) vs 6.7 (6), p = 0.135. The time since diagnosis and IgA anti-TG2 titer correlated with the lymphogram results. Helicobacter pylori infection and treatment with angiotensin receptor antagonist 2 (ARA2) were associated with differences in the lymphogram results in patients without CD.

Conclusions:
The duodenal lymphogram is a reliable complementary tool in adults for the diagnosis of CD. However, compliance and duration of the GFD and other factors may condition its diagnostic capacity.

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