Milk-Derived Amadori Products in Feces of Formula-Fed Infants

Authors:
Sillner N, Walker A, Hemmler D, Bazanella M, Heinzmann S, Haller D, Schmitt-Kopplin P
Year of publication:

2019

Volume:

67

Issue:

28

ISSN:

0021-8561

Journal (long):

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Journal (short):

J Agric Food Chem

Impact factor:

4.192

Abstract:

Food processing of infant formula alters chemical structures, including the formation of Maillard reaction products between proteins and sugars. We detected early Maillard reaction products, so-called Amadori products, in stool samples of formula-fed infants. In total, four Amadori products (N-deoxylactulosyllysine, N-deoxyfructosyllysine, N-deoxylactulosylleucylisoleucine, N-deoxyfructosylleucylisoleucine) were identified by a combination of complementary nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approaches. Chemical structures were confirmed by preparation and isolation of reference compounds, LC-MS/MS, and NMR. The leucylisoleucine Amadori compounds, which most likely originate from β-lactoglobulin, were excreted throughout the first year of life in feces of formula-fed infants but were absent in feces of breastfed infants. Despite high inter- and intraindividual differences of Amadori products in the infants’ stool, solid food introduction resulted in a continuous decrease, proving infant formula as the major source of the excreted Amadori products.

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